AFRICAphonie AFRICAphonie is a Pan African Association which operates on the premise that AFRICA can only be what AFRICANS and their friends want AFRICA to be.
Jacob Nguni Virtuoso guitarist, writer and humorist. Former lead guitarist of Rocafil, led by Prince Nico Mbarga.
Postwatch Magazine A UMI (United Media Incorporated) publication. Specializing in well researched investigative reports, it focuses on the Cameroonian scene, particular issues of interest to the former British Southern Cameroons.
Bernard Fonlon Dr Bernard Fonlon was an extraordinary figure who left a large footprint in Cameroonian intellectual, social and political life.
PostNewsLine PostNewsLine is an interactive feature of 'The Post', an important newspaper published out of Buea, Cameroons.
France Watcher Purpose of this advocacy site: To aggregate all available information about French terror, exploitation and manipulation of Africa
Bakwerirama Spotlight on the Bakweri Society and Culture. The Bakweri are an indigenous African nation.
Simon Mol Cameroonian poet, writer, journalist and Human Rights activist living in Warsaw, Poland
Bate Besong Bate Besong, award-winning firebrand poet and playwright.
Fonlon-Nichols Award Website of the Literary Award established to honor the memory of BERNARD FONLON, the great Cameroonian teacher, writer, poet, and philosopher, who passionately defended human rights in an often oppressive political atmosphere.
Omoigui.com Professor of Medicine and interventional cardiologist, Nowa Omoigui is also one of the foremost experts and scholars on the history of the Nigerian Military and the Nigerian Civil War. This site contains many of his writings and comments on military subjects and history.
Victor Mbarika ICT Weblog Victor Wacham Agwe Mbarika is one of Africa's foremost experts on Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Dr. Mbarika's research interests are in the areas of information infrastructure diffusion in developing countries and multimedia learning.
Martin Jumbam The refreshingly, unique, incisive and generally hilarous writings about the foibles of African society and politics by former Cameroon Life Magazine columnist Martin Jumbam.
Enanga's POV Rosemary Ekosso, a Cameroonian novelist and blogger who lives and works in Cambodia.
Godfrey Tangwa aka Rotcod Gobata Renaissance man, philosophy professor, actor and newspaper columnist, Godfrey Tangwa aka Rotcod Gobata touches a wide array of subjects. Always entertaining and eminently readable. Visit for frequent updates.
Francis Nyamnjoh Francis B. Nyamnjoh is Associate Professor and Head of Publications and Dissemination with the Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA).
Ilongo Sphere Novelist and poet Ilongo Fritz Ngalle, long concealed his artist's wings behind the firm exterior of a University administrator and guidance counsellor. No longer. Enjoy his unique poems and glimpses of upcoming novels and short stories.
When Southern Cameroonians resident in the diaspora learned of the strike organized by Southern Cameroonian Common Law advocates followed by yet another strike spearheaded by the Teachers' Union(TAC) we nodded in approval and started brainstorming ways and means to contribute materially in a bid to lend support to both movements. Right now we in the US are in the process of contributing dollars to send to Southern Cameroons.
The question I would like for the lawyers and teachers to answer at this juncture is the following: What went wrong with the uprising in Southern Cameroons? When the rank and file (okada guys, park boys, wheelcart pushers, and more) rose to the occasion, namely the strike organized by Common Law advocates and the Teachers Union, we in the diaspora rubbed our hands in glee because we thought that the intellectuals that they are, were going to give perspicacious direction and leadership to the disorganized uprising that we all saw in the streets thanks to social media. Sadly enough, that did not happen and the result is history.Why did the lawyers and teachers back off? What suddenly paralyzed them all? We are now saddled with a DECAPITATED REVOLUTION with no leadership in sight. What went wrong? What did we learn from the Ghost Towns Operations of 1990s? What did we learn from the 2008 uprising in Yaounde, Douala and other major Cameroonian cities? I do not ask these questions in a bid to sound supercilious or disrespectful of the strides these two groups have made thus far. In fact, I applaud their courage in taking the bull by the horns. But I just want to know what held the lawyers and teachers (intellectuals) back and prevented them from lending needed organizational support to the young Southern Cameroonians that joined their strike in the mistaken belief that they were throwing their weight behind a sustainable movement? What went wrong?
Fellow Southern Cameroonians, I am sad to say that once again we have squandered yet another golden opportunity through paranoia, internal strife, lack of foresight and strategic planning, and by this very token, have emboldened our oppressors, Mr. Biya and his cohort of vampires hibernating in Yaounde. Worse still, we have caused our brothers' and sisters' blood to be spilled with no tangible results to justify the bloodshed. I have said in many of my write-ups that the ANGLOPHONE PROBLEM will never be resolved through dialogue with nationals of LA REPUBLIQUE DU CAMEROUN or with foreign bodies such as the UN, Commonwealth, British and French embassies etc. These toothless bulldogs couldn't care less about the survival of Southern Cameroonians. What they do care about is whether or not their bread baskets in Africa remain intact. Read my write-up on this subject matter: http://www.postnewsline.com/2016/11/-time-for-the-demilitarization-of-british-southern-cameroons.html
They are too conceited and short-sighted to see the need for dialogue with ENGLISH-SPEAKING underdogs crying out for justice in Southern Cameroons.
Finally, I want to state unequivocally that strategic planning is the key ingredient in defeating an enemy,regardless of how dreadful that enemy might be. Last but not least, we cannot face Paul Biya's military empty-handed or by mounting catapults as we watched the youngsters do in Bamenda lately. We have seen in the past couple of days just how blood-thirsty and sexually starved these military bastards are. We need an armed wing of the SCNC movement if success is our utlimate goal. Please read SPEAR OF THE NATION; UmKONTO We SizWe (2012) by Janet Cherry. Sadly enough, on account of all that I have stated above, the uprising that we just witnessed in Southern Cameroons has proved to be an ORPHANED REVOLUTION. What happened?
The burden of Hepatitis is huge in sub-Saharan Africa. With the number of infected persons growing so rapidly it is feared that this silent epidemic may be capable of wrecking the entire sub-Saharan Africa. Unfortunately, majority of those infected do not know that they have the disease. As such they do not seek help and they continue to spread the viruses to their love ones and friends most of the times unknowingly. The few people who know that they are infected do not know the options available to them. Also, many persons in Africa have not taken measures to protect themselves against hepatitis because they do not know how transmission occurs especially in the context of persons living in Africa or of African origin. Struggle against the notorious liver germs was written in the era of advanced treatment and cure by a leading world-class expert in the field to highlight some local practices and issues associated with the transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses in such a way that people in Africa can relate to. It is written for the common man on the streets anywhere in Africa and for those involved in one way or the other in policy and social issues that play directly on the provision of vaccination, testing, awareness and care of patients with infectious diseases. It will be a good idea if you share this book with your family and friends so they too will understand more about the different aspects and health issues associated with hepatitis.
Esther Lamnyam, celebrated author of Love under the Kola Tree:What City Moms Didn’t Tell You about Creating Fulfilling Relationships (2009) has come up with yet another powerful tool intended to enable readers to live impactful lives. Strive to be Happy is a compendium of epigrammatic reflections on human behavior. The ontological wisdom embedded in the bosom of this 148-page non-fictional book is priceless. Like François de la Rochefoucauld’s Maximes (1665), Lamnyam’s aphorisms are the condensed sagacity of a writer who has traveled many roads. Hers is a clear-eyed, worldly view of human conduct that indulges in neither condemnation nor sentimentality. She posits that our virtues are usually only vices in disguise. Perceiving life as a ritual, Lamnyam offers the following counseling to her readers: “Have a ritual you practice daily. This will help position you and give you your bearings for your present location.”(35). Come to think of it, life is, indeed a ritual, be it the drudgery of existential humdrum or the repetitive monotony of daily chores. Even the friendships that we create, opines Lamnyam, are ritualistic and tend to be evanescent if we fail to nurture them. As she puts it, “When we abuse and choose to not honor relationships and other humans, they might leave us…"(37). Many a friendship has been broken on account of mutual ingratitude and disrespect. In this vein, Lamnyam argues, to give relationships longevity, it is incumbent upon individuals involved to say or do little things that manifest thankfulness. In her own words, “Many broken hearts are born from being ungrateful” (37. Her words of caution to ingrates ring true: “Do not take others and partners for granted… They have the choice to leave the relationship any given day…” (37
Lamnyam has a predilection for proverbial sayings that remind readers of existential vicissitudes: “Everything that is hot eventually becomes cold” (45). This binary juxtaposition of antonymic words drives home the point lucidly. This writer broaches the importance of nomenclature in social intercourse as seen in the following excerpt: “Give a baby a name/it grows with it…/Fear is in a name when it belongs to a tyrant/A name has personality /when the bearer is subtle/There is credit in a name/ it has honor and influence”(43). Lamnyam’s book harbors the key to a happy life provided we do the little things that matter such as greeting the people we meet every day with a smile: “Start by smiling…One of the most powerful good energy generating tools is a smile”(49). Lamnyam appeals to readers to be mindful of the impact their demeanor has on the people in their entourage: “Think about the effect your demeanor or sadness has on those around you” (49). These words of wisdom may sound trifling but they really do matter and may be the dividing line that dissociates a life of failure from one of success.
Lamnyam’s Strive to be Happy is an inspirational work replete with didactic messages as the following extract illustrates: “Evil energy needs something to feed on just like a hungry person needs food… Evil energy needs evil energy as its food…” (94)These sagacious words brook no contradiction. They are applicable to all and sundry—indigent and opulent, slave and master, governor and governed. This is Lamnyam’s way of admonishing readers against evildoing because evil begets evil.Throughout this book Lamnyam’s voice sounds like that of a quiet peace-maker. She calls for nonresistance as a modus operandi needed to ward off the pangs of pain occasioned by social injustice, exploitation and disenfranchisement. Hear her voice in the following excerpt: “Learn non-resistance in (different situations)…. this technique of nonresistance can be used in so many ways to diffuse potentially explosive situations” (94). Another didactic lesson that Lamnyam places at the disposal of readers is the importance of keeping promises. As she puts it, “The only thing you can keep when you give out is your word…” (128) By this token, she stands opposed to prevarication and falsehood. She has the conviction that people who tell lies and half-truths eventually lose credibility: “You corrode your credibility when you do not keep your word” (128).Lamnyam envisages a symbiotic relationship between human beings and animal beings: “Learn from the animals” (138). By elevating beasts to the pedestal of human beings, Lamnyam, by the same token, lowers humans to the level of animals. This is food for thought.
In her ontological peregrination, Lamnyam draws inspiration from the indigenous knowledge of her people, the Wimbum, as seen in her recourse to the following proverb: “Truth is slow, but it always arrives” (138). This maxim is pregnant with meaning. She has more to say in this light: “Whatever is done in darkness eventually comes to light” (104). As she sees it, truth begets happiness. When all is said and done, what is happiness according to Lamnyam? She defines happiness in spiritual terms as follows: “Happiness is to know the Savior/Living life in His favor/ Having a change in my behavior/ Happiness is the Lord” (141). The message nestled between the lines in this excerpt is a pointer to the writer’s perspicacious spirituality. In her mind, a life devoid of spirituality is an unfulfilled life: “Living a life that’s worth the livin’/ Taking a trip/ that leads to heaven/ Happiness is the Lord” (141). God is Love but God is also truth. It is for this same reason that Lamnyam calls upon readers to steer clear of tall tales: “Many of us are liars… Be truthful, else all this good stuff I share with you will be hard to come to grounded fruition” (129) Lamnyam does not speak tongue in cheek. She tells it like it is, not caring whose horse is gored.
This book contains cosmological messages intended for readers who nurse skepticism about the symbiotic relationship that exists between natural and spiritual cosmoses as seen in this extract: “… we must understand the interconnectedness of the universe in multi-dimensions to make better progress” (127). Lamynam seems secure in her conviction that the universe is a network of disparate entities needing coordinated harnessing for human progress, without which the results of human endeavors will be “abysmal in many cases” (127). To lend more credibility to her belief system she contends that “the spiritual and physical aspects of human beings have rules that apply and are constantly in motion, like the clouds in the sky” (126). The didacticism contained in Strive to be Happy touches on race matters. Using the colors of the rainbow as a starting point, Lamnyam appeals to human beings to learn to cohabit peacefully without undue attention to racial differences: “Use the colors of the rainbow to harmonize your day, week and life” (105). Figuratively speaking, the colors of Lamnyam’s rainbow are symbolic of terrestrial racialism.
This book brings to readers important lessons on how time and money should be spent: “Spend time and money on yourself and your aspirations” (82). This message is not an endorsement of inordinate self-love or narcissism; rather it is a call for parsimonious utilization of the recourses that God has bestowed on humanity for the common good—the summum bonum. Lamnyam’s call for the judicious utilization of planetary resources is echoed in the following extract: “Determine what you need and spend your money to get it.”(82). Strive to be Happy is a futuristic work as this excerpt seems to suggest: “Lay the groundwork or foundation today for your older age … Plan your nights in the day. Plan your evenings in the morning, your summers in winter” (78). These are words of inspiration at their best. Lamnyam’s book is also a clarion call for religious tolerance: “If your religion is very important to you and someone’s religious affiliation is different from yours, discuss that upfront…” (77) The author is certainly not oblivious of the religious upheavals that are rocking the very foundations of contemporary society. The book also satirizes religious hypocrisy in no uncertain terms:” People have many faces, one for work, one for personal life, one for wooing others…” (77)
Style plays a non-negligible role in Lamnyam’s narrative and calls for a comment. She writes in a conversational fashion, opting for words that do not create room for double entendre. Her recourse to a non-erudite style of writing makes her work accessible to the learned and not so learned, the initiated and the neophyte. Her diction is commonplace and poses no comprehension challenges what-so-ever. This is a masterpiece that should be on the reading list of all philosophy courses nationwide. I thought I noticed a few very light-hearted authorial impositions in the narrative; however these moments of interjections from Lamnyam do not cause any prejudice to the overall flow of the narrative. The translation of orality into the written word is a noteworthy aspect of Lamnyam’s writing style. She uses poetics like the one on pages 41-42 to communicate culture-specific messages. Proverbs, these pithy wise sayings that communicate profound messages, populate Lamnyam’s written work.
In a nutshell, Strive to be Happy is a hybrid text that combines aphorisms, proverbs, and desiderata to produce a poly-semantic work that appeals to readers across social strata. The plurality of themes broached in the book constitutes one of its unique strengths. I would recommend this work for inclusion in the required readings of college-level psychology courses. The uniqueness of this book resides in its accessibility to all age groups.
About the reviewer
Dr. Peter Vakunta is Professor French and Francophone Literature at the University of Indianapolis, United States of America. He is chair of the Department of Modern Languages.
 François VI, Duc de La Rochefoucauld, was a noted French author of maxims and memoirs. His principal achievement is a collection of 500 epigrammatic reflections on human behavior, expressed in the most universal terms.
Peter Wuteh Vakunta, PhD— University of Indianapolis
The language question in Cameroon has become the elephant in the room. Of all the burning issues that continue to plague Cameroon, the language question is the most problematic. This paper argues that Cameroon’s Official Bilingual Policy has fallen short of expectations. We propose a Quadrilingual Language Policy that would lay the foundation for effective Multilingual Education that guarantees national unity and integration. Our model incorporates Cameroonian official languages, indigenous languages and a lingua franca—in our case Cameroon Pidgin English (Cameroonian Creole). The merit of this MODEL is that it would normalize Cameroon’s linguistic anomalies. More than five decades after gaining token independence from imperial powers—France and Great Britain; Cameroon still does not have an implementable language policy that protects linguistic minorities. Writing along similar lines, Ayafor (2005)notes that “language policy and planning suffer a political hijacking in which language measures are monopolized by political authority and are used as a form of blindfolding against the civil society and linguistic principles”(138).
This political bad faith violates Article 1:3 of Cameroon’s national Constitution which puts French and English at par. It states: “The official languages of the Republic of Cameroon shall be English and French, both languages having the same status. The State shall guarantee the promotion of bilingualism throughout the country. It shall endeavor to protect and promote national languages.” The fundamental flaw of this constitutional stipulation on official ‘bilingualism’ is that it fails to provide a clear working definition. It is not clear what level of linguistic proficiency must be attained by Cameroonian citizens in order to demonstrate officially sanctioned bilingualism. Worse still, the constitution glosses over the dichotomy between individual and state bilingualism. In a linguistically pluralistic nation such as Cameroon, Bilingualism could mean anything from fluency in English and French; English and a national language; French and a national language; Pidgin English and a national language; a national language and another national language, etc. Besides, proficiency in any of these languages could vary from zero to near-perfection. It is in this perspective that Rosendal (2008) makes the following observation: “The extent of bilingualism in French and English in Cameroon is hard to estimate. Bilingual proficiency varies from zero to near perfect at the universities, depending on how semi-bilingualism, functional bilingualism and passive bilingualism are defined.” (25) An interesting dimension of the discourse pertaining to official bilingualism in Cameroon is its correlation with biculturalism. Scholars such as (Echu, 2012; Tadadjeu, 1975; Fonlon, 1963, 1969) have pointed out that biculturalism is an integral component of official bilingualism. Sadly enough, official bilingualism in Cameroon has been treated with such levity that it has virtually been rendered dysfunctional. Jikong (1983) attributes the failed implementation of Cameroon’s official bilingualism to inadequate language planning. That’s why Bobda and Tiomajou (1995) observe that “In Cameroon there is no government position on language policy and planning apart from the statement that French and English shall be the official languages of the Republic”(127).
To put this differently, Cameroon’s official bilingual policy has been presented as a mere statement of intent. According to Soule (2013), “the State is doing quite a lot to ensure the promotion of bilingualism, as stated in the Constitution, but is doing very little to ensure practical implementation of bilingualism”(13).There is no legislation on the practice of bilingualism in Cameroon. Consequently, Cameroonians who infringe the constitutional stipulation cited above cannot be held accountable because there is no institution charged with the implementation of the nation’s bilingual policy. Though strongly articulated in policy documents, Cameroon’s bilingual policy remains a mere manifesto on paper. In daily practice, French has dominance over the English language in the spheres of administration, education and the media.
The position of dominance accorded the French language is attributable to the absence of an effective language policy that safeguards the rights of linguistic minorities. This status quo does not bode well for the nation’s quest for freedom and identity because as Echu (2004) would have it, “The Policy of official language bilingualism has created an Anglophone/Francophone divide in Cameroon that is seen in recent years to constitute a serious problem for the State” (6). Thus, though conceived to play the role of a unifying factor, Cameroon’s official language policy embodies germs of disunity. The lackluster implementation of the nation’s language policy has been described by scholars as a harbinger of national disintegration (Soule, 2013; Echu, 2004; Ayafor, 2005; Tiomajou, 1991; Bobda and Tiomajou, 1995). Ayafor for instance, argues that “language has become one major factor among the socio-political grievances of Anglophones’ so-called ‘The Anglophone Problem’ since 1980s” (133).
The ‘Anglophone Problem’ stems from the second fiddle status assigned to English-speaking Cameroonians by francophone members of government. This probably explains why in English-speaking towns and cities such as Bamenda, Buea, and Tiko, to name but a few, there are billboards and toll-gates with inscriptions written entirely in French. Rosendal (2008) notes that “bilingual policy implies that official documents and laws are published in both languages” (29). These examples lend credence to the fact that English remains a mere afterthought in the minds of government officials in Cameroon. In Cameroon official documents such as decrees and more are endorsed with an official seal and their content implemented without official versions in English. It is not uncommon to find English translations of important government documents fraught with mindboggling spelling and grammatical errors. These are pointers to the fact that the implementation of Cameroon’s official bilingualism has failed woefully.
There is no gainsaying the fact that what prevails in Cameroon today is tantamount to linguicide, a term used throughout this paper to describe the linguistic genocide that has been given leeway in Cameroon. Linguistic genocide is observable in all spheres of government business. In the judicial branch of government, the interpretation of the letter and spirit of the law is left to the whims and caprices of French-speaking judges who are ignorant of how the Anglo-Saxon legal system functions. This has resulted in countless miscarriages of justice. For instance, a travesty of justice was evident during the infamous Yondo Black trial in the 1990s.
The National Radio and Television Corporation (CRTV) is another case in point. The preponderance of French news at the CRTV is no secret to anyone living in Cameroon. During electoral campaigns, little or no time is allotted to the campaign speeches of Anglophone opposition leaders desirous of addressing the nation in a bid to sell their political platforms. The language of instruction and daily routine in Cameroon’s armed forces, police and gendarmerieis French. Anglophones recruited to serve in these forces have to fight or flee; in other words, they must learn French or perish.
Such is the crux of the Anglophone Problem in Cameroon. To eradicate these policy bloopers and save Cameroon from linguistic disintegration, this paper proposes a Quadrilingual Education System that is linguistically inclusive. Our model is calqued on previous models proposed by two of Cameroon’s most acclaimed experts in the field of early childhood second language acquisition, namely Bernard Fonlon (1963) and Maurice Tadadjeu (1975).
A Quadrilingual Educational Model in Cameroon
The Model that we propose is anchored on the acquisition of four (4) languages: English, French, a National Language and a Lingua Franca (CPE) before the Cameroonian child gets to University. We argue that a quadrilingual education model that gives pride of place to the acquisition of both official and national languages serves as a catalyst for the attainment of national unity and economic advancement; the more so because language constitutes the bedrock of nationhood and self-identity.
In our conceptualization of the Quadrilingual Model we have espoused the stance of Tadajeu (1975) who argues that “if language is to be the primary concern of the primary school then there is no reason for not including the vernacular languages in the curriculum at this level”(58). Tadajeu actually echoes Fonlon’s thoughts on this theme: “I must confess that the expression Cameroon bilingualism is a misnomer. It would be correct to speak of Cameroon trilingualism because even before the Cameroon child comes to school to learn English and French, he should have already learnt his own native tongue” (“A Case for Early Bilingualism…,”p.206). Other scholars in this field have argued for the inclusion of indigenous languages in the educational system in Cameroon (Mba and Chiatoh, 2000; Todd, 1983; Chumbo, 1980; Ngijol, 1964; Achimbe, 2006). Achimbe argues that the language education policy in Cameroon largely ignores the importance of national languages. As he puts it: “In promoting its bilingual language education policy, the government has largely disregarded the multilingual make-up of the country. Indigenous languages play only a secondary role…” (96).
Similarly, Tadadjeu advocates the inclusion of national languages in the education system in Cameroon in his trilingual Education Model. The Quadrilingual Model proposed in this paper envisages the inclusion of a lingua franca (Cameroon Pidgin English) for several reasons.
Lingua Franca as Component of the Quadrilingual Model
The rationale for including CPE in our model is three-fold. First, the number of households in Cameroon where Pidgin English is the primary language of communication is on the increase. Just as French and English are mother tongues for the majority of urban kids today, Pidgin English has supplanted these hegemonic languages in many homes, especially in instances of mixed marriages between Francophone and Anglophone Cameroonians. Second, Pidgin English is the only language spoken by over 85% of Cameroonians. According to Achimbe (2006), Pidgin English acquired a national character, “representing the mother tongue of fifty percent of the population” (99). He further notes that Cameroon Pidgin English (CPE) is fast becoming the mother tongue in some urban communities. Breton and Fohtung (1991) buttress this point when they refer to Pidgin English as a language of “wider communication in Cameroon” (12). Mbangwana (1983) lends credence to the importance of Pidgin English as a lingua franca in Cameroon as follows:
Pidgin English is very crucial as a communication bridge, for it links an Anglophone to a Francophone. It also links an Anglophone to another Anglophone, an educated Cameroonian to another educated one, a non-educated Cameroonian to another non-educated one, and more importantly an educated Cameroonian to a non-educated one(87).
Ayafor (2005) recognizes the importance of lingua franca in language planning in Cameroon when he underscores “the role of Pidgin English as a linguistic bridge between the two linguistic communities both in official and private domains” (128). He further notes that Pidgin English in not only the most widespread variety of English but it is the only language in Cameroon with the pragmatic ability to function as a contact language for all linguistic groups.
The third reason for including Pidgin English in the Quadrilingual Model is that Pidgin English is no longer just a language of the streets. It has evolved into a medium of literary expression. Cameroonians are now producing works of literature in Pidgin English. A few examples would drive home the point: Majunga Tok: Poems in Pidgin English(2008), CamTok and Other Poems from the Cradle (2010), African Time and Pidgin Verses(2001)Stories from Abakwa (2008), Je parle camerounais (2001), Moi taximan (2001)and Temps de chien (2001).
What we would like to do at this juncture is provide a succinct description of the Quadrilingual Model.
A Blueprint for Quadrilingualism in Cameroon
In our conception of a Quadrilingual Education System in Cameroon, we have made a clear distinction between a first official language(O1), which is the medium of instruction and the second official language(O2) which is a subject to be learned at school. At the same time, we have underscored the dichotomy between a national language (indigenous language) and a lingua franca (hybrid language used as a means of communication among speakers of other languages).
The long-term objective of the Quadrilingual Education System would be to prepare Cameroonian learners linguistically for university studies. The ideal would be to see each Cameroonian child literate and fluent in their mother tongue or a related regional language, the two official languages as well as a lingua franca as they work their way toward university studies. To be labelled fluent, the individual must be able to function at level 3 of the Inter-Agency Language Roundtable Scale of Descriptors.
The Quadrilingual Blueprint
Primary School Level
At the primary school level, the mother tongue should be the medium of instruction and the first official language (English for Anglophones and French for Francophones) would be a curricular subject. This stipulation would apply to both rural and urban schools. A proportionate number of indigenous language teachers will have to be trained in order to see this project through.
Secondary School Level
At secondary school level, a gradual switch would be made to the learner’s first official language (English for Anglophones and French for Francophones) as a medium of instruction. The mother tongue, lingua franca and second official language (French for Anglophones and English for Francophones) should become curricular subjects.This model ensures that learners are exposed to three languages before they get to High School.By the end of secondary school, the Cameroonian child should be Quadrilingual in the strict sense of the word as it is used in this paper.
High School Level
At high school level German, Spanish, and Latin courses should be replaced by courses in Cameroonian indigenous languages. Also, some language majors would be encouraged to participate in indigenous language literacy programs. No specific modifications are anticipated at this level as regards the teaching of French and English, except where instructional pedagogies are concerned.
At university level two things could occur.
i. The extension of current indigenous language courses in a bid to transform them into inter-lingual translation courses covering all national languages as well as Pidgin English. Program designers and coordinators could conceive incentives that would encourage a greater number of students to sign up for languages related to their own mother tongues if there are no courses in their mother tongues.
ii. Students with linguistics as minors or majors could be encouraged to take indigenous language literacy courses that would enrich their mastery of the phonology, morphology and syntax of indigenous languages.
This paper has unearthed the root causes of the bilingual policy abortion in Cameroon. Incontrovertible evidence has been unraveled to lend credence to the contention that Cameroon’s language policy is a non-starter and has, therefore, failed to serve as guarantor of national unity and territorial integration. To fill this lacuna, this paper has proposed a Quadrilingual Blueprint that is inclusive of Cameroonian national languages and Pidgin English. The merit of this paper resides in the fact that it has broadened the scope of the national language policy discourse in Cameroon by arguing for the inclusion of indigenous languages and Pidgin English. Most importantly, it has made the point that national language policy decisions ought to be made on the basis of sound pedagogic principles rather than on the whims and caprices of uninformed political role-players.
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 On April 4, 1990, the Yaounde military tribunal was the focus of national and international attention as arguments in the trial of Yondo Black Mandengue and 10 others began.They had been arrested in February of that year for trying to create a political party. Officially, however, the accused were charged with holding clandestine meetings, fabricating and distributing tracts hostile to the Government, rebellion, and insulting the Head of State.
 The following ILR descriptions of proficiency levels 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 characterize spoken-language use. Each higher level implies control of the previous level’s functions and accuracy. A skill level is assigned to a person through an authorized language examination called the Oral Proficiency Interview(OPI). Examiners assign a level on a variety of performance criteria exemplified in the descriptive statements.
Literary translation is a highly meta-linguistic transaction requiring not only perspicacity but also mental flexibility, the more so because far from being a mindless replacement of lexical items in the source text by equivalent linguistic elements in the target text (Catford, 1966); translation practice has metamorphosed into cultural exegesis . What accounts for the complexity of literary translation as opposed to the non-literary is the peculiarity of the stylistic aesthetics and socio-cultural matrices in which works of literature are hatched.
One of the vocal voices in this school of thought is House (2002) who contends that “in recent years there has been a shift in translation studies from linguistically-oriented approaches to culturally-oriented ones” (92). Arguing along similar lines, Steiner (1998) maintains that translation is an “act of elicitation and appropriative transfer of meaning” (312).He likens translation to an operative convention which derives from a sequence of phenomenological assumptions about the coherence of the world, about the presence of meaning in formally antithetical semantic systems.
It is tempting to deduce from the foregoing that there is tacit agreement of sorts among translation theorists who view translation as an act of cultural hermeneutics . In this essay, rather than dwell on the underpinnings of translational theorization, we would rather shed light on the ramifications of viewing translation practice as an act of interpretation (exegesis). Our adumbrations in this discourse do not apply to technical and specialized texts. The reason is that the formalistic and aesthetic qualities of non-literary texts call for an entirely different set of skills that will not be broached in this paper. Suffice it to say that the faithful translation of a non-literary text depends on the translator’s deliberate conformity with professional canons; with the rules of the trade as it were. Literary translation is governed by rules that underscore best practices; these canons constitute the crux of the discussion that follows.
Translation as Cross-cultural Communication
In a bid to produce a text that meets the demands of dynamic equivalence from a cultural viewpoint , competent translators function as cultural brokers. Dynamic equivalence determines the inter-textual, intercultural and inter-lingual transfers that occur between source and target texts. In a bid to transfer meaning holistically from source to target texts, seasoned translators endeavor to unravel the latent significations embedded in the source text signifiers. House (1997) observes that the source text ought to be analyzed at the levels of language, register and genre. The reason she provides for such analysis is that in conveying information from one language to another, translators seek functionally equivalent linguistic and non-linguistic equivalents in the receptor language.
Dynamic equivalence is a key notion is translation theory and practice. The genesis of this discourse dates back to Eugene Nida, who in 1964 argued that translators should translate so that the effect of the translation on the target language reader is roughly the same as the effect of the source text on the source language reader. It is worth mentioning, however, that this is not meant to suggest that the translator should always find one-to-one categorically or structurally equivalent units in the two languages. Sometimes two different linguistic units in different languages perform the same function.
As a cultural communicator, the onus rests with the translator to bridge the gap between source and target text significations at both linguistic and cultural levels. As Siegel (2013) observes in one of her write-ups, “A source text could be thought of as a blueprint. If one strays from the instructions given, they end up with an entirely different product than the one originally intended.” Fidelity to the source text means that the intention with which the source text was created has to be faithfully reproduced in the target text. Viewed in this light, the practice of translation appears to be a deliberate act of cultural interpretation.
Translation as Interpretation
The thesis according to which literary translation is a sort of interpretation has gained leverage among translation practitioners. It is customary for literary translators to seek out the author’s thoughts and communicative intent (Buhler, 2002). To put this differently, effective translation derives from the translator’s ability to decipher the significations of the words in the source text. The term ‘interpretation’ is used in this paper to mean ‘exegesis,’ the act of deciphering the meanings embedded in the linguistic and non-linguistic aspects of the source text.
Exegesis presupposes a deliberate attempt by the translator to unveil the communicative motivations of the author of the text s/he is rendering. Competent translators are mindful of the fact that written texts embody among other things, cultural peculiarities, worldview and imagination of members of the linguistic community for whom the texts were written. The task of the translator does not end with uncovering the hidden meanings in the source text; an even more important demand on the translator is the task of transposing the unraveled meanings over into the target language.
Translation as Transposition
Jones (1997) sheds light on the signification of the term ‘transposition’ when she notes that transposition is a non-literal translation device. Transposition involves a change in grammatical categories, namely nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions and more. For example, the source text in French which reads “quelques jours après sa mort, la presse fit des révélations sur la vie privée du président” could be rendered as “A few days after he died, the press leaked out, information on the president’s private life.”
Notice that the noun phrase “sa mort” has been translated as a verbal statement, “he died.” We must not lose sight of the fact that subtle differences exist between English and French. One such difference is that English is a synthetic language whereas French is analytical. To do a good job, the translator is expected to be conversant with structural discrepancies between source and receptor languages. Such knowledge enables the translator to resort to modulation as a translation technique.
Translation as Modulation
Modulation as a translation strategy involves a change not in grammatical category as with transposition, but rather in the thought pattern of the source text writer. The ability to skillfully effect a message modulation distinguishes competent from incompetent translators. Highly effective translators are those who have mastered the ropes and know when to resort to modulation in a bid to not only maintain the figurative connotation of the source text message in the target text but also to demonstrate sensitivity to the sensibilities of the target language community.
Sensitivity to Target Language Sensibilities
Texts are not written in a vacuum; they are offshoots of cultural milieus. To a large extent, deeply held beliefs in a target language community determine the extent to which a translated text will be accepted or rejected. This has wide-ranging ramifications for the marketability of translated works. As Lefevere (1992) puts it, “translators are interested in getting their work published. This will be accomplished much more easily if it is not in conflict with standards for acceptable behavior in the target language culture; with that culture’s ideology” (87).
Seasoned translators know that if the source text is at variance with the ideology of the target culture, the translator has the latitude to tinker with the text so that the seemingly offensive passages are modified to conform to the ideology and poetics of the recipient community. This presupposes that the translator disposes of a sizeable socio-cultural baggage. Without such knowledge, the translator would be hard pressed to find relevant analogies in the target language culture and literature. The foregoing discourse places a huge premium on the primacy of cultural literacy as an effective operational tool in literary translations.
The question that begs to be asked at this juncture is why is it important to know all that has been said above? How valuable is this knowledge to budding translators, translation instructors and students of translation? We will provide answers to these questions below. The intent of this paper has not been simply to provide a plethora of modes of achieving faithful translations. The primordial intention has been to provide instructors and students of translation with some food for thought. The second and, certainly more important rationale has been to provide instructors of translation courses with a working model for conducting translation studies. We maintain that knowledge of the source and target languages alone will not suffice to be a good translation instructor.Given the polytonality and hybrid nature of the texts that are often assigned for translation, appropriate instructional models must be conceived for teaching literary translation. Culture-based literary texts, undoubtedly call for culturally-oriented pedagogical models. I will discuss one such model—the Bloom-Hermeneutic (Exegetic) model below.
The Hermeneutic Model propounded by Schleiermacher and Bowie (1998) could be used in conjunction with Bloom’s Taxonomy (1956) to create an effective model for teaching translation. This dual model of textual analysis would be germane for teaching literary translation. The theory of hermeneutics underscores the importance of interpreting, not only the hidden significations embedded in the source text but also the situational dimensions that constitute the substructure on which the text is anchored. The model facilitates the teaching of translation by enabling instructors to come to grips with the rudiments of text analysis. The model is anchored on the perception that a holistic understanding of a text is feasible when the relationship between individual parts and the whole has fully been grasped.
Bloom’s Model of textual analysis requires instructors to create higher-order learning tasks that require translation students to interact with source texts at six different levels: Evaluation (making value judgments about issues discussed in the text, resolving semantic controversies, assessing the function of vocabulary in context and other textual issues); Synthesis (creating a unique original product that may be in verbal form or a combination of concepts to form a new whole, using old concepts to create new ones); Analysis(organizing ideas and recognizing trends, finding the underlying structure of communication, identifying motives); Application(using and applying knowledge, problem-solving, use of facts and principles implied in the source text); Comprehension(interpreting, translating from one medium to the other, demonstrating, summarizing, and discussing the signifier-signified relationship); Knowledge (recall of information, discovery and observation).
In a nutshell, instructors tasked with teaching the translation of culture-based texts cannot but be like the texts they teach—at once bilingual and bicultural. The Bloom-Hermeneutic Model is distinctive by its circular nature. It is built on the concept that neither the whole text nor any individual parts can be understood without reference to one another, hence, its circularity. The circularity inherent in the Bloom-hermeneutic Model implies that the meaning of a text is to be found within its cultural, historical and literary contexts. The interface between socio-linguistics and literature implied in this model makes it particularly suited in teaching the translation of hybrid literatures. There is no gainsaying the fact that this two-pronged pedagogical paradigm is exegetic and thus suitable for teaching the translation of multi-layered texts that call for multi-faceted analysis.
Meta-linguistics is the branch of linguistics that deals with language and its relationship to other cultural behaviors. It is the study of dialogue relationships between units of speech communication as manifestations and enactments of co-existence.(cf. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metalinguistics)
Exegesis is a term used in translation circles to describe the unraveling of the significations embedded in the linguistic and non-linguistic components of source-text. Ljuldskanov (1969) posits that exegesis refers to the translator’s willful attempt at deciphering the context, style and intent of the source text.
Buhler (2002) opines that viewing translation as interpretation conditions the translator to “examine the social factors present in the surroundings of the author” (62). For more on exegesis, see Steiner’s “The Hermeneutic Motion” in After Babel: Aspects of language and Translation (1998). Also see Vakunta’s The Role of Extra-linguistic Factors at the Exegetic Stage of the Translation Process (1991).
Hermeneutics is the theory of textual interpretation, especially the interpretation of Biblical literary and philosophical texts. Modern hermeneutics includes both verbal and nonverbal communication as well as semiotics.
According to Nida (1974), dynamic equivalence is to be defined in terms of the degree to which the receptors of the message in the receptor language respond to it in substantially the same manner as the receptors in the source language.
Online communication in a translation course taught at the University of Indianapolis by Peter Vakunta, 2013.
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_. “Universal Versus Culture Specificity in Translation,” In Translation Studies: Perspectives in an Emerging Discipline. Ed. Riccardi, Alessandra. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
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Nida, Eugene. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Brill: Leiden, 1964.
Steiner, George. After Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Vakunta Peter W. The Role of Extra-linguistic Factors at the Exegetic Stage of the Translation Process. MA Thesis, University of Buea, Cameroon, 1991.
UBSU is a responsible Union, the more reason the Union dialogue with the VC on Saturday and Sunday, there UBSU agreed to allow students take part in the 11 feb celebration because it is our civic responsibility while resuming talks on Thursday Feb 14th.. But as typical of Cameroon management style the UBSU Vice and interim President Minang Ronald alongside others have been kidnapped by police men prior to the dialogue. Now what type of genuine dialogue does our UB administration want?
The allegation by the VC that UBSU has never submitted her constitution to the UB Administration is a fat lie. If our UB administration is sincere, UBSU has submitted her Constitution four times; we have received feedbacks thrice from the VC on points to add and or removed. There has been a standstill for a while now due to some issues we don’t agree, the UB authorities should not be lieing.We can show communications between UBSU and the office of the VC to the media in regard to this.
The Vice Chancellor of the University of Buea, UB, Professor Nalova Lyonga has reaffirmed her commitment for dialogue as the only tool to solve the problems affecting the institution. This comment was made during a press conference that held in the Boardroom of the Central Administration Building of the University on Tuesday, February 12, 2013, attended by public and private media outlets. The press conference was convened by the University Administration to divulge information on recent student disturbances, and to clarify the position of the University.
Reacting to the Student Union strike action, Professor Nalova Lyonga maintained firmly that the University of Buea cannot and will not be controlled by a few individuals who practice politics of the stomach. “We cannot have a University where a handful of students decide to govern 17,000 students,” she quipped.
If a terrorist is a radical who employs terror as a weapon, or an individual who uses violence, terror, and intimidation to achieve a result, then the University of Buea in the Southwest region of Cameroon is the bastion of terrorists, requiring the immediate intervention of the supreme counter-terrorism unit of the land to reign the excesses and orgy of violence and intimidation that disguises for student unionism.
Whilst student groups in different countries of the word have had a major role in broader political events, student activism have largely impacted environmental, economic, or social change, and student activism has often focused on making changes in schools, such as increasing student influence over curriculum or improving educational funding. Unfortunately, student activism at the University of Buea has been for self-aggrandizement, and the urge has been to intimidate, blackmail and terrorize campus life to achieve diabolic ends. The strategies and methods have been sheer terrorism.
An excerpt of a brief email from Prof. Nalova Lyonga, Vice Chancellor of the University of Buea that found its way to a number of Cameroonian Internet forums:
100 students calling themselves UBSU want to rule over 17,000 students. How can that be? That is why they foiled a meeting convened by the Administration for all elected executives of the Faculties. All the Faculties have completed their elections smoothly. Now UBSU claims that they a central body that must control all these executives. To do that, they want to hold their own exclusive elections, without the other executives. The University says, No; we must be democratic and free! If they want to federate, the members must come from among the faculty executives, not UBSU.
UBSU is violent; they come to school with clubs and knives to terrorize students and teachers out of class. It is a dangerous group, consisting of undergraduates, ex-students, non-students - all persons susceptible to being used by extremists of all sorts who want a political gains and self-aggrandizement. University of Buea cannot go down this path. And we must all act. You can send this message to anyone.
We successfully laid the foundation stone yesterday for the building of a 2,500 bed-capacity hostel to house students on campus. This is the long-term plan for modern accommodation and a business centre. The students want photocopiers on campus, which is not a problem but have to be limited in addition to photocopiers which we are furnishing in the library. The haphazard connection of photocopiers to electrical outlets in the current buildings is a hazard and we have had fires twice.
Nalova Lyonga, PhD Vice-Chancellor, University of Buea.
Interviewed By Walter Wilson Nana & Hanson Nfor Nchanji (Originally published in the Post)
CameroonPostline.com -- The peace that has been reigning on the campus of the University of Buea,
UB, for a while now has suddenly been replaced by a strike action.
Wednesday, February 6, Executive members of the University of Buea
Students’ Union, UBSU, called for a strike action.
In an eight-point memorandum addressed to the Vice Chancellor, Dr.
Nalova Lyonga, UBSU is demanding amongst others; that online
registration problems in the university should be given prompt
attention, that on-campus businesses, especially photocopiers, should be
reinstated to facilitate the teaching and learning process, that
students should be allowed to seat for examination upon part payment of
their registration fees of FCFA 25,000, that the various modes of
transcripts should be respected and made available on time to stop
exploitation of students.
In the heart of the strike action, the Acting President of UBSU,
Ronald Minang, told The Post that students are angry. He gives reasons
in this interview. Read On!
Both former State officials were whisked off to the Kondengui Central Prison, Yaounde on Monday.
Former Prime Minister and Head of Government, Chief Ephraim Inoni, and former Minister of State, Minister of Territorial Administration, Marafa Hamidou Yaya, were yesterday, Monday April 16, 2012 placed under pre-trial detention by the Mfoundi High Court in Yaounde.
Both former State officials had been interrogated behind closed doors by examining magistrates as part of the judicial process in the case now popularly known as the ‘Albatross Affair.’ Investigations were launched to track down all suspects in the failed purchase of a presidential aircraft in 2003.
"It is true that the project is huge and a welcome relief to the people of the area and government of Cameroon in its policy drive to make Cameroon an emerging Nation as it will bring jobs, and development to the locality. All that notwithstanding, the aboriginal rights of the indigenous people cannot be disregarded." Ndian High Court.
Excerpt of Ruling issued in open court.
The originating summons filed by the Plaintiff sought the courts determination of the following legal questions.
(1) “Whether or not the defendants can legally enter upon land in Mundemba and Toko Sub Divisions, indiscriminately plant survey beacons purporting to demarcate the area of land purportedly ceded to them and fell down timber and bulldoze large areas of land without due authorization and without regards to existing farms and village settlements.
HEAD OF STATE’S MESSAGE TO THE YOUTH ON THE OCCASION OF THE CELEBRATION OF THE 46TH EDITION OF THE NATIONAL YOUTH DAY
10 February 2012
My dear young compatriots,
In my message to the Nation a few weeks ago, I reminded all Cameroonians that we are caught in a pursuit race between our development and our population growth. By this, I meant that there should be a correlation between wealth generation in our economy and our population growth such that the first may not only meet the needs of our compatriots, but also improve their living standards progressively. Indeed, it does not suffice to undo the damage caused by successive crises – which is what we are doing - but to give a fresh impetus to our economic activity to attain the status of an emerging country, which is what we have embarked on.
The 150 Southern Cameroons National Council (SCNC) militants-activists who were arrested and detained at the Buea Police Mobile-Rapid Interventioan Unit last Saturday, October 1, 2011 appeared before the Buea court of First Instance to hear the charges brought against them by local authorities. They were arrested while trying to commemorate the 50th anniversary of unification of the British Southern Cameroons and the French Cameroons
According to Solomon Amabo of Equinox TV, the activist have been charged with preparing and holding an illegal meeting are gaining their freedom. The case has been postponed to December 2011.
Here are first images from Buea courtesy of Patrick Sianne.
By Patrick Sianne after he was released by security forces in Buea
Here attached is the memo of the SCNC Group of 150 that I helped, as ad-hoc consultant and co-detainee, to draft for world-wide publicity of their stay in jail on a day they wanted to come out as one and commemorate the 50th anniversary of the reunification of Southern Cameroons and the La Republic du Cameroun. SCNC Militants singing liberation songs while in detention in Buea (c) Patrick Sianne
MEMORANDUM FROM SOUTHERN CAMEROONIAN DETAINEES ARRESTED ON 1ST OCTOBER 2011 AND HELD AT GMI N0 5 (MOBILE INTERVENTION UNIT N0 5) AT GREAT SOPPO, BUEA.
We, the 150 some Southern Cameroonian detainees arbitrarily arrested, starved, tortured, and subjected to various forms of Human Rights abuses, do hereby submit this Memorandum from detention to whom it may concern, do hereby express our unreserved commitment to the Southern Cameroonian cause, for which we have been detained.
By Solomon Amabo A., Deputy Editor-in-Chief Equinox Radio/Television
a hurriedly written post pls
About five journalists have been brutalised
I write to confirm that Molah Njoh is under house arrest. It is infront of his residence that police men have just beaten me, seizing my id card. just few minutes ago. I was with Mua Paul another colleague. We went there to check whether Mola Njoh was still alive given the troops sorrounding his home.
The email below from Mola Njoh Litumbe is currently making rounds on Internet forums. Reuters has confirmed that SCNC activists have been arrested as they attempted to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the reunification of British Southern Cameroons and The French republic of Cameroon:
Having failed to locate my driver to take me to the Police Station where some of our compatriots are detained, or to the Nigerian Consulate where others are camped, I attempted to drive the car out myself and was met by a strong police contingent outside my gate who stopped me from leaving my premises, alleging that they were on orders to keep me under house arrest, on orders from the Governor of the South-West Region..
I have recoiled into my study and hereby confirm my detention. No reasons have been given, but this is the response of La Republique du Cameroun to resolve our differences peacefully and amicably, by brutalizing and preventing Southern Cameroonians from celebrating the anniversary of the 50th anniversary of the date which the United Nations named as the date they were to attain independence by joining La Republique du Cameroun, which they never did.
The struggle continues, but Southern Cameroons must be free.
Breast ironing, a violent attempt to prevent the sexual development of adolescent girls, has scarred the bodies and psyches of millions of girls in Cameroon. Chi Yvonne Leina reports.
"Think of a woman whose vagina is mutilated at the age of 9, whose breasts were ironed at the age of 10..."
In the privacy of homes, behind closed kitchen and bedroom doors, pubescent girls in Cameroon are being tortured by their own mothers. Using objects like grinding stones, mortar pestles, coconut shells, or hammers heated over hot coal, mothers massage their daughters' developing breasts to destroy any indication of emerging womanhood. War has been waged against womankind. Genitals are mutilated; breasts flattened; bodies battered; hair cut off for rituals; minds deprived of education.
The breast, a feminine symbol and the pride of womanhood, has become a target. The urge to protect their daughters from rape and premarital pregnancy has pushed mothers in Cameroon to deform the breasts of their daughters.
Having received quite a commendable number of submissions this year from Anglophone Cameroon writers living in Cameroon and the Diaspora, EduART Inc is pleased to announce the short listed authors for the second bi-annual EduART Literary Awards for Cameroon Literature in English.
These awards are intended to encourage not only the production of more creative writing but also to boost publishing in Cameroon. These are “people's choice” awards which means the winning entries will be selected by a panel of judges drawn from a cross section of the Cameroon reading public not just literary experts.
6 Members of Cameroon Ô'Bosso are being illegally detained for the last two days.
Ekwa Essi Franck
Njengoue Kameni Joseph
David Were members of the team organizing the protest in Douala on Wednesday, February 23rd. The gendarmes descended upon them at about 8:00 a.m. before the protest had begun. The gendarmes arrested our colleagues and seized the 200 t-shirts and 200 water sachets that they were carrying to give out to other protestors.
PRESS RELEASE Africa is at a turning point, Cameroon as well. 50 years after obtaining administrative independence, Cameroonians are determined today to obtain true independence.
Key characteristics of Cameroon that are fuelling the current protests and demands:
Cameroon has had only 2 presidents in the last 50 years. The current president, Paul Biya has been in power for 28 years.
After a return to multi-party politics in 1990 Cameroon has held 7 elections. All have been considered extremely fraudulent and rigged in favour of the party in power
Cameroon is an economic paradox with an incredible amount of natural resources including petroleum, timber, extremely favourable conditions for agriculture, mineral resources, etc. Yet in this country, due to lack of structural economic reforms, widespread corruption and lack of a clear vision and development strategy for the country:
President Paul BIYA has called on the youths of Cameroon not to relent their efforts in the development of the country. He was speaking to the youths on the occasion of the national youth day, and announced the special employment of 25 000 university graduates into the Public Service. Here is a full text of the message of the Head of State to the Youths on 10 February 2011.