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Wednesday, 23 November 2005

Comments

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felix

Does it sounds any music in the ears of SCNC??.The Anti-Africa Sessionist is in Cameroon as a sign that he doesn't support them.What Gowon's here saying is Read "My Lips and learn form Nigerian History".

Ma Mary

Southern Cameroons is not Biafra. Different history, different genesis or have you not been studying the history? Southern Cameroons is more like East Timor or Norway or the Czech or Slovak republik which are separate states that went into a union. Southern Cameroons left Nigeria to become self governing in 1954 and there was no sneeze from Nigeria because that fact was recognized. Singapore left the Malay Confederation 18 months after it was formed because they were incompatible and had different goals. Please, it is the rule, not the exception for incompatible states to separate. The only issue is that you are greedy for Southern Cameroonian resources.

Tekum Mbeng

Gowon is the fellow under whose leadership; ethnic tensions were made worse in Nigeria leading to a civil war.

He was a coup plotter, anti-democratic and heralded a reign of military dictatorships that terrorised civilian life in Nigeria until recently.

Gowon as Head of State and Commander-in-Chief is yet to atone for the failure of federal leadership under his command and for the death of over 1 million Africans in the ensuing civil war.

There should be no heroism in Africa for leaders who are a party to a civil war. The General should not have been VISA'ed into Cameroun.

General GOWON's policies or lack thereof, particularly an acute failure to stem the tide of rising discrimination against the Igbos precipitated the declaration of Independent Biafra by Colonel Ojukwu for his ethnic Igbos.

Tekumbeng

Che Sunday (Dr.)

Mr.Tekumbeng, you got it all wrong. Gowon did not trigger in military governance in Nigeria. The first military coup in Nigeria was initiated by Brigadier -General A. Ironsi, and Igbo.He successfully outsted an elected parliamentary government headed by Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. Because the country was divided into four administrative regions, the North, West, Mid- West and East, with each region headed by a premier, Ironsi claimed that the regional governments were too powerful and rendered the central government in Lagos powerless. So he decided to take over power. During the coup, the following discrepancies became apparent. Tafawa Balewa, a northerner who headed the federal government was assasinated. Ahmadu Bello, the Premier of the Northen region was also assasinated. Not touched were Nnamdi Azikewe, next in command to Balewa who held the position of governor general( a position with no designated powers), Awolowo, premier of the western region, and Enahoro of the mid-west.
Gowon came to power as a result of a military coup planned to curb the excesses of Agui Ironsi. When Northerners saw how only their own leaders were killed in the Ironsi led coup, they then planned the public uprising known in Hausa as "araba" or lets divide. It was during this uprising that a lot of Igbo's got killed in the north.
On seeing this enormous loss of life, Ojukwu then created the Biafran state with the purpose of getting the Yorubas to also declare their own independent state so as to isolate the North. The Yorubas back-tracked and remained in the Union. The Igbo's paid the supreme price. Cut off from the rear by Ahidjo's staunch support for Nigeria, and being overwhelmed from the front, the Igbo's fought spiritedly but the odds were overwhelming. To say therefore that it was under Gowon that ethnic tensions were made worse is outright wrong. Those tensions had been at boiling point before he came along. As commander in chief, he had a mission, to keep his country intact. He did that. He was not at the battle front to monitor every form of attrocity his troops might have committed.
When Nigerians tell you today that they are the most populous country in Africa, the leader in Africa, and could have been the richest if their resources are properly managed, that credit goest to Gowon. He was smart enough to change the Nigerian currency soon after Biafra was declared, thus making whatever currency the Eastern region had void and illegal. It no longer served as legal tender.That act alone shortened the duration of the war. It saved some lives. Give him that much credit. There is no such thing as a civilized war. The fellow who is at the receiving end of your bullet sees nothing civil in your actions. To illustrate. The United States, one of the most civilized nations on earth has a on record, a protocol which requires nations receiving military assistance from her to sign asking that the recepient nation shall not cast a vote supporting the impeachment of American troops accused of war crimes. To the best of my knowledge, only South Africa under Mandela refused to sign that accord. Nations are therefore, very cognizant of the fact that in the conduct of war, a lot can, and does go wrong. The suffering of the Igbos during the civil war was the reality of war. Gowon was not a saint, nor was he a villian. He was a leader entrusted with a mission, keeping Nigeria as a united entity, regardless of of differences. May be this is a lesson our SCNC separatist advocates should learn. I have this philosophy that says, the mark of good leadership is how best we manage our differences to co-exist, not how well we magnify them to justfy the creation of "mono-cliques".

Che Sunday (Dr.)

Mr.Tekumbeng, you got it all wrong. Gowon did not trigger in military governance in Nigeria. The first military coup in Nigeria was initiated by Brigadier -General A. Ironsi, an Igbo.He successfully outsted an elected parliamentary government headed by Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. Because the country was divided into four administrative regions, the North, West, Mid- West and East, with each region headed by a premier, Ironsi claimed that the regional governments were too powerful and rendered the central government in Lagos powerless. So he decided to take over power. During the coup, the following discrepancies became apparent. Tafawa Balewa, a northerner who headed the federal government was assasinated. Ahmadu Bello, the Premier of the Northen region was also assasinated. Not touched were Nnamdi Azikewe, next in command to Balewa who held the position of governor general( a position with no designated powers), Awolowo, premier of the western region, and Enahoro of the mid-west.
Gowon came to power as a result of a military coup planned to curb the excesses of Agui Ironsi. When Northerners saw how only their own leaders were killed in the Ironsi led coup, they then planned the public uprising known in Hausa as "araba" or lets divide. It was during this uprising that a lot of Igbo's got killed in the north.
On seeing this enormous loss of life, Ojukwu then created the Biafran state with the purpose of getting the Yorubas to also declare their own independent state so as to isolate the North. The Yorubas back-tracked and remained in the Union. The Igbo's paid the supreme price. Cut off from the rear by Ahidjo's staunch support for Nigeria, and being overwhelmed from the front, the Igbo's fought spiritedly but the odds were overwhelming. To say therefore that it was under Gowon that ethnic tensions were made worse is outright wrong. Those tensions had been at boiling point before he came along. As commander in chief, he had a mission, to keep his country intact. He did that. He was not at the battle front to monitor every form of attrocity his troops might have committed.
When Nigerians tell you today that they are the most populous country in Africa, the leader in Africa, and could have been the richest if their resources are properly managed, that credit goest to Gowon. He was smart enough to change the Nigerian currency soon after Biafra was declared, thus making whatever currency the Eastern region had void and illegal. It no longer served as legal tender.That act alone shortened the duration of the war. It saved some lives. Give him that much credit. There is no such thing as a civilized war. The fellow who is at the receiving end of your bullet sees nothing civil in your actions. To illustrate. The United States, one of the most civilized nations on earth has on record, a protocol which requires nations receiving military assistance from her to sign asking that the recepient nation shall not cast a vote supporting the impeachment of American troops accused of war crimes. To the best of my knowledge, only South Africa under Mandela refused to sign that accord. Nations are therefore, very cognizant of the fact that in the conduct of war, a lot can, and does go wrong. The suffering of the Igbos during the civil war was the reality of war. Gowon was not a saint, nor was he a villian. He was a leader entrusted with a mission, keeping Nigeria as a united entity, regardless of ethinic, ideological or religous differences. Maybe this is a lesson our SCNC separatist advocates should learn. I have this philosophy that says, the mark of good leadership is how best we manage our differences to co-exist, not how well we magnify them to justfy the creation of "mono-cliques".

Ma Mary

Dr Che, the majority of state separations in the past 2 decades (and there have been many) have been peaceful. War is the exception and not the rule. May be we should list them. Why did Nigeria not object when Southern Cameroons decided to be self governing?

One other thing, General Ironsi was not responsible for initiating the first Nigerian coup. It was a bunch of younger officers, including Major Kaduna Nzeogwu and other officers of similar rank. When they had done their damage to the civil authorities, General Ironsi took over by default but the exhaustive evidence shows that he had nothing to do with the coup. Ironsi, an Igbo was later on killed in a second coup by Hausa officers who were upset that major Northern figures were killed but Southern mostly Igbo figures were spared. Things went downhill from there, including the massacre of tens of thousands of Igbos in Northern Nigeria which caused Ojukwu to decide to secceed.

Southern Cameroons is not secceeding, if you read the history honestly.

Che Sunday (Dr.)

Ma Mary,
When Southern Cameroon opted to leave Nigeria, there were two options, re-unification with French Cameroon, or be part of Nigeria. Our northern brothers opted for unification with Nigeria, while we opted for unification with French Cameroon. There is a continued attempt at misleading the present generation into believing that we were a self governing state before joining French Cameroon. If we were;
what was our national anthem?
where is our constitution?
who were the drafters of our constitution?
Who were are ministers?
Just because we had a premiere and a house of chiefs, does not grant us the status of a nation state.
We had enept leaders who did failed to impress on the United Nations, and most especially Britain to include the option of self-governing on the plebicite ballot prior to leaving Nigeria. Instead, we were told to try the experiment of being with French Cameroon for 35 years, and if the experience failed, we could then opt to leave. Guess what, it did not work, but our leaders were too busy lining their pockets with money to care.
The most plausible option we have today is decentralization. Our northern brothers who opted to go with Nigeria are today living as a christian minority in the old Gongola state and doing just fine. They tell of their hard-times trying to be part of Ahidjo's grand north, and felt that they were more at ease under Sarduna's grand north in Nigeria. If you asked me, they are doing just fine.So long as our leaders, whether forced or coaxed into signing that article of confederation in foumban, and so long as they did not repudiate that article in public, we are part of today's Cameroon. Any attempt to disassociate ourselves from that unity, is a seccesion. Its that simple.
We can not build a nation state on deception. There is nothing wrong in telling the truth and seeking our own identity at the same time. Even if we succeed today in becoming a self governing entity, Southern Cameroon might just turn out to be the most devissive entity on the continent. Take for example the graffi sawa divide that has given rise to the "come no go" jest within our people. You may think its not of importance, but recall that this has become a topic of graduate studies in which a masters degree has been awarded. Is this discriminative attitude a learned behavior from our francophone brothers? The fon of Mankon is on record for refering to non Mankon indigen settlers in the city as "foreigners". A Cameroonian in his country of birth is being called a foreigner!
We can not begin to compare our relationship with Nigeria in pre-indepence with that of French Cameroon. We were a "trust territory" during our days with Nigeria. It simply meant we were given to Britian to hold until we became of age to make a determination as to how to govern ourselves. We did not go to French Cameroon as a "trust Territory". Leaving Nigeria did not require an act of war because we were not part of Nigeria to begin with.We are no longer designated as West Cameroon as was the case before our illiterate leaders gave away our birth rights in exchange for personal gains. We are referred to as the Northwest and South West provinces. Ma Mary, to leave now is secceeding. Its reality, its not semantics.

Dr A A Agbormbai

What is wrong with the term 'seccesion'? It simply means 'breaking up' or 'separating from', regardless of how a union was formed.

For me, the key issue here is this statement of Dr Che:

"Instead, we were told to try the experiment of being with French Cameroon for 35 years, and if the experience failed, we could then opt to leave."

If this statement is true then it really boosts the SCNC's case because, with the callous ways that Presidents Ahidjo and Biya have treated Anglophones, they have left ample evidence of the union not working.

All such evidence can be exploited by the SCNC. The SCNC is also helped by the fact that the act of secession is presently in vogue, given the various examples that have occurred elsewhere.

The Biya government continues to assist this process by foolishly picking on the SCNC, harassing them, and violating their democratic rights.

The Biya and Chirac governments need to realise that their outdated methods, which are founded on violence and intimidation, are a real liability in modern times. They have to seriously consider modernisation.

I must say that all these commentaries have helped me see where the SCNC is coming from.
Nevertheless, with the good governance initiative of IMF and the Bretton Woods institutions, the general trend is for Cameroon to anglophonise.

The French system and methods have failed, being always founded on shaky grounds (on Napoleonic and Gaulist dictatorships, which have no place in the modern successful world). France too needs a face lift (too many strikes in the country is a clear indication that an upheaval in the administrative system is needed).

France, Francophone Africa, and Cameroon (in particular) must anglophonise to become competitive in the modern world. The Bretton Woods good-governance programme, which is the primary force driving Cameroon today, will help Cameroon achieve this goal (and I shall be helping Cameroon in this process).

Anglophones in Cameroon must be key players in this process, and all the quoted sayings that 'an Anglophone can never rule Cameroon' belongs to the past (not to the future), as the wind of change smoulders such divisive statements to the ground. Cameroon should be ruled by the most able Cameroonians, be they Anglophone or Francophone.

We should never forget that Cameroon has been destroyed by two Francophone presidents who had very divisive and destructive tendencies. And the current revolution and revival of the country is championed by Anglophones and anglophone-related institutions.

If the good governance programme fails in Cameroon because the Francophone-dominated government does not want to abandon its evil ways then the SCNC's activities become highly relevant, as it provides the avenue to cut anglophone loses.

Tekum Mbeng

Contrary to Dr Che Sunday, it is a recorded fact that General Johnson Ironsi did NOT initiate the first coup on January 15, 1966.

As head of the army, Ironsi was based in Lagos, was encouraged by the ranks to step in and stem the tide of violence that began with a murderous mutiny in the North by younger officers. The gory chronology of events is well documented (see for example accounts by Nowa Omoigui, MD http://www.dawodu.com) including detention of most of the coup plotters on Ironsi’s orders.

Nowa Omoigui’s account on this issue is corroborated by ex-President Shehu Shagari in a meeting with General Johnson Ironsi shortly after the rebellious announcement from Radio Kaduna – see “Beckoned to Serve” by Shehu Shagari.

With regards to Lt. Col. (later General) Yakubu Gowon, Chief of Staff, Supreme Headquarters in the 1966 military rebellion that toppled Nigeria’s 1st Republic and later Commander of 2nd Batallion in Ikeja under Commander-in-Chief Johnson Ironsi, one has to appreciate the bloody and tribalistic route through which this 32 year old glided into executive power. On 29 Jul 1966, C-i-C Johnson Ironsi found himself in the deadly cross wires of a counter-coup d’etat by northern officers that ushered Gowon into power.

To summarize, the failures of the Supreme Military Council under Gowon’s leadership and in particular the lack of effective policies to lead a fractured nation and abate inter-ethnic hatred degenerated into sporadic civilian massacres.

That invariably led to the declaration of independent Biafra by Lt. Col. Ojukwu on 30 May 1967 to create a haven for the Igbos. It is therefore a fair accusation against General Gowon that he heralded the leading wave of military dictatorships in Nigeria during which over 1m Africans perished. It could have been prevented if officers, including General Gowon had kept their over-sized egos under check and loyalty to democratic civilian governance.

As for Gowon’s 9 years in power compared to 6 months for Johnson Ironsi, see for example www.nigeriavillagesquare1.com/Articles/ ogbunwezeh/2004/09/national-council-of-fools-obasanjo-and.html, how analysts feel about his years in power. He is accused of plunging Nigeria into a colossal debt burden that has proven quite painful to successive regimes.

To credit General Yakubu Gowon for a one Nigeria policy is correct but disingenuous to the extent that he (Gowon) and his colleagues contributed to the split in the first instance! Perhaps, realizing the failings of the military, General Gowon as Head of State articulated a magnanimous "no victor, no vanquished" policy which did much to restore national goodwill. Overall, these military officers, pumped with impulsiveness and rascality, have caused much mayhem in African countries and should not be adulated.

Martin

Doc Che Sunday’s doctrine that says “ the mark of good leadership is how best we manage our differences to co-exist, not how well we magnify them to justify the creation of mono-cliques" is misleading claptrap.

In the first instance, mono-cliques do not arise in nature because even siblings disagree.

Secondly, without veritable checks and balances, the Che Sunday doctrine promotes deficiencies in the human condition such as tyranny, with impunity.

Thirdly, the violation of ratified agreements or treaties and opportunistic manipulations of the constitution in an autocratic state against provinces or minorities becomes inconsequential. All the citizens have to do is stick together. That is very dangerous to human society.

The prevalence of many and not one super country on planet Earth invalidates the doctrine. Sorry Che, go back to the laboratory!

The Doc who is arguably a scientist or engineer needs basic schooling on the principles of law in human society. There are checks, balances and consequences often accompanied by precise timing.

Dr. Louis Mbua

Che Sunday (Dr),

I read your articles with great concern. In your first article on Gowon, you (mis)took a complete elliptic tangent by mistakenly accusing Ironsi as the genesis of the Nigeria mayhem and butchery of the mid 1960s. Now, you are attacking Southern Cameroonian using questionable sources of information. Amongst your uninformed assertions you wrote:

"There is a continued attempt at misleading the present generation into believing that we were a self governing state before joining French Cameroon."

Either you do not know or you are actually misleading the present generation. Southern Cameroons achieved semi-autonomy (self-government) in 1954 after S Cameroonian MPs walked out of the Nigerian Eastern House on grounds of benevolent neutrality; and that theyy weren't Ngerians. Although it was self-governing within the Federation of Nigeria, SC were answerable to HMG in Londonand NOT to colonial Nigeria.

Further, there was a SC cabinet with Ministers. I would also like to remind you that Trust Territories of the UN are not sovereign. Therefore, they are not allowed to have anthems etc. SC anthem was God Save the Queen of UK. The UN/British Flag was the Flag of Southern and Northern Cameroons.

Again you opined, albeit, erroneously:

"We had inept leaders who did failed to impress on the United Nations, and most especially Britain to include the option of self-governing on the plebiscite ballot prior to leaving Nigeria."

Southern Cameroons, before the 1960s, was far more advanced in leadership and democracy than a VAST majority of African countries including French Cameroons who were in the throes of a UPC rebellion against the French. It is mark of UN disregard for the rights of Southern Cameroonians to have asked them to join a country ravaged with Civil war. What exactly was the point? Besides, the Republic of Cameroon was not a democracy, and had never experienced true democracy like SC. Ahidjo was NOT elected by Universal Suffrage of the people but in Parliament Yaounde due to the war in the country.

Leaders were not inept. They were caught in the tide of history; and the intriue of the Powers. In this day and age, inept leaders or not, the UN would never ask such disrespectful questions to a peoples. It was, in fact, an abuse of the human rights of the peoples of Southern Cameroons and it must be rectified whether people like it or not.

"So long as our leaders, whether forced or coaxed into signing that article of confederation in Foumban, and so long as they did not repudiate that article in public, we are part of today's Cameroon. Any attempt to disassociate ourselves from that unity, is a seccesion."

Another statement not based on facts but on hearsays. Can you point us to the "article" that was signed in Foumban? Or at least, refer to it? And who signed this "article"? And why? As far as no such document exists or cannot be found, your arguments are completely baseless and as such of absolutely no consequence. Secession, therefore, is out of place. SC is still a UN Territory untile an internationally recognised Treaty is signed between LRC and Southern Cameroons.

Even if they signed any article, that does not give LRC a right to treat Southern Cameroonians like their slaves; and then refusing to develop the territory while siphoning resources to build their own territory across the Mungo River. Only the most depraved of lunatics would accept such NONSENSE. Now, the Francophones should either, revert back to the Federation as prescribed by the UN or leave the territory. The fact that no Treaty exists between the two countries mean that Southern Cameroons is not in any legal Union with any country. The Union is illegal in international law.

Your hopeless assertion of differences in SC between different ethnic groups as a reason to deny Southern Cameroonians their birthright is illegitimate. No country is perfect. All that is needed are laws to curb excesses in racism, tribalism, barbarism and an incitement to racial hatred.


Metuge Ekane

I am utterly shocked that CHE SUNDAY,who bags a PHD cannot even expanciate on the 3rd UN option with regards to this crystal-clear matter!
Listen to him,'we were told to experiment with French Cameroun for 35 years,if things didn't work out,then we could abandon the union'.Sunday,what are you really thinking?How did you get that doctorate degree?Logically,i find your account profoundly lugubrious for a guy of your standing.You ought to invest alot more of your intellectual endeavour in assisting Anglophone youths understand the purpose of this struggle for self-determination.You seem to be more abrest of Nigerian history than of the story that predominantly affects you and your people.Speaking of the power- struggle history of Nigeria,i am quite elated that a prompt correction was rendered to your blatantly fallacious claim that General Johnson Ironsi was the cause of Nigeria's first civil war!Do your homework.If anything,i simply need to remind you of the fact that Yakubu Gowon was popular even in Her Majesty's kingdom,HE WAS A SMART STUDENT.Nevertheless,the British never saw him as a conspicuous favorite ruler in the former colony.The primordial reason being that Gowon was a recalcitrant and a cold-blooded exterminator.Therefore,Africa should dissociate itself from such acrimonious vampires.
Sunday,you suggest that decentralisation would do the trick?!I am surprised that you still have such a mind-set.Did you mean a re-instatement of the federation?You write so unconvincingly,and i truly doubt if anyone shall be impressed by you.

Ma Mary

Dr Che Sunday:

- If you are a Southern Cameroonian, you clearly are behind on your history. There are a few references by scholars which will help you to get up to date fast, and those will give you references to original sources if you want to go deep. The term 'anglophone' is a misnomer

- In African tradition, "jumba" is not marriage and the separation of the parties is not really divorce, although more up to date interpretations make room for "common law" relationships. As a strictly legal matter, the union between la republique and SC was never ratified. There is no marriage certificate, no contract so it is a different matter than say Biafra. This is for the benefit of Dr Agbormbai.

- Finally, it is the duty of a freedom loving human being to change bad laws and bad arrangements that constrain freedom. It is the duty of a slave to escape. It is the duty of a child to grow up and leave its parents. It is the duty of a colonized people to break their chains. Even if we were to accept the argument that our leaders were inept, we cannot accept chains that inadvertently came through their hands. Could it cost blood? Yes. Why do we think we are different from others who have walked that path. People live in America enjoying legal freedoms. Well, freedom aint free. Lets get over it. It would be better to have everything we want delivered on a silver platter. Nfor, Ebong, Ayamba, Dinka and others have been paying the freight. Dr Che, if you want to remain a slave, you are welcome.

And Dr Agbormbai, France is not about to change and most definitely does not want to become an anglosaxon type state. They have said so in just as many words, many times in the last year. They do not favor the neoliberal model, which is a euphemism for anglosaxon and Bretton Woods. Bretton woods is not good for Africans either. We have to figure out our own path in the world. France changes by crises. That is the historical trend. There is no sign that there has been a crisis of serious enough magnitude to change their neocolonial policy in Africa or even at home. Just watch, the problem in the ghettos will be papered over with a band aid.

Dr A A Agbormbai

Dr Mbua,

You say the leaders who united Southern Cameroon with the Republic of Cameroon were not inept, yet the evidence that you supplied to illustrate your point seems to suggest that they were indeed inept (even if they were among the best in Africa at the time).

Look at this excerpt of yours:

"Southern Cameroons, before the 1960s, was far more advanced in leadership and democracy than a VAST majority of African countries including French Cameroons who were in the throes of a UPC rebellion against the French. It is mark of UN disregard for the rights of Southern Cameroonians to have asked them to join a country ravaged with Civil war. What exactly was the point? Besides, the Republic of Cameroon was not a democracy, and had never experienced true democracy like SC. Ahidjo was NOT elected by Universal Suffrage of the people but in Parliament Yaounde due to the war in the country."

My questions here are:

1) Did the UN force this arrangement on Southern Cameroon? If so, would we call the UN democratic? If not (which I believe is indeed the case), why did the competent leaders of Southern Cameroon not point out the discrepancy in leadership styles between the two Cameroons, and thereby refuse to enter the agreement? Doesn't their decision to enter this agreement suggest that they were indeed incompetent?

2) Have you ever heard of a sane case wherein a democracy would unite with a war-ravaged dictatorship without any qualms? Doesn't the war-like nature of the autocratic country itself suggest that the democratic country had to be very careful because it was dealing with a country that cannot be trusted to keep its word? Wasn't it easy to see that the warlike ally was most likely to continue to use the methods that it had honed in war time in order to colonise the democratic SC? In the light of all these, can you say that the SC leaders did not show considerable oversight and misjudgement, which amounts to ineptitude?

Dr A A Agbormbai

Metuge Ekane,

Please control your emotions. You can criticise Dr Che without getting so personal!

Dr A A Agbormbai

Ma Mary,

France cannot sustain its current policies forever. A line of failure is a line of failure, it doesn't matter how one pretends that it is a line of success. And failure hurts the whole nation, so swallowing pride in the face of failure is a must. Current French policies and methods are complete failures.

There are, however, signs that France is indeed doing something about this. A few weeks ago there was a story on this weblog wherein a French government official was sharing information with a Cameroonian gov't official concerning decentralisation of gov't activities.

Also, at least one commentator has indicated on this weblog that the French are teaching English at earlier stages of their educational system than they had been doing.

Louis_Mbua

Dr. Agbormbai,

You asked pertinent questions which I am obliged to answer.

"Did the UN force this arrangement on Southern Cameroon? "

Yes. Prior to the Plebiscite, leaders of Southern Cameroons asked the UN for more time to prepare themselves for independence. Firstly, I presume, because we didn't have any military of our own. And secondly, it was a right thing to ask. The UN Charter includes a freedom of self-determination. As a Class B Trust territory similar to the French Cameroons, the UN had the obligation to see that SC obtains its own separate independence given that they already had self-government in 1954. In fact eye-witness accounts testify that the UK and the UN connived to parade SC as a poor orphan with no resources at all. As a result, nobody wanted responsibility for an independent and "poor" SC. The way out for them was to push the "problem" to somebody else by asking two illegal questions.

A resounding No was the answer the UN gave SC leaders.

"If so, would we call the UN democratic?"

No. The UN is democratic. But in the SC case, they acted undemocratically. In fact there is a resolution that voted for SC's independence. But Power politics at the Security Council appears to have won the day.

"If not (which I believe is indeed the case), why did the competent leaders of Southern Cameroon not point out the discrepancy in leadership styles between the two Cameroons, and thereby refuse to enter the agreement?"

There was fierce opposition in the SC House of Parliament and the House of Chiefs. P.M Kale vehemently opposed this move by the UN demanding outright independence for SC. But the UN ignored his calls. Chief Nyenti of Mamfe also demanded Independence but this was refused. Fon Achirimbi opposed these cavalier dealings but his cries fell on deaf ears. Many others opposed this move or at least include a third question. But all in vain. It is true that Foncha was an Unificationist. But that is democracy. That he was so does not make him inept. He held an opinion but I believe he also argued on a third question on the Plebiscite.


"Doesn't their decision to enter this agreement suggest that they were indeed incompetent?"

No. Remember that SC was a Trust Territory under UK Mandate. As a result there was a limit that they could go to argue. In fact, UK and UN abandoned SC after the plebiscite with the UK terminating its mandate before the UN prescribed Conference was to be held. Despite the conference having ended inconclusively, the UN never bothered to ensure the full implementation of a Union Treaty and the eventual Act of the Union to become international law. Thus we are left we an illegal Union with LRC violating the rights of SC citizens; cheating and discriminating them and stealing their resources with impunity while the UN folds its hands and watch. THIS MUST END.

The UN has to do the right thing or it will be done for them with catastrophic consequencies because no peoples have ever accepted slavery. It is anathema to human nature.

The question you asked below has been partly answered. At least, the poor results of the the Illegal Union are there for all to see after 44 years.

"2) Have you ever heard of a sane case wherein a democracy would unite with a war-ravaged dictatorship without any qualms? Doesn't the war-like nature of the autocratic country itself suggest that the democratic country had to be very careful because it was dealing with a country that cannot be trusted to keep its word? Wasn't it easy to see that the warlike ally was most likely to continue to use the methods that it had honed in war time in order to colonise the democratic SC? In the light of all these, can you say that the SC leaders did not show considerable oversight and misjudgement, which amounts to ineptitude?"

Ma Mary

There was a eerie, prophetic warning sounded by Dr EML Endeley about this adventure that we were about to enter. Everything that he uttered has come to pass. If someone has a copy of the famous warning, this would be a good time to provide it here. Unfortunately his warning was given in the context of the two UN options.

Another aspect of this is that the "two options" were debated in a backdrop of local power politics. Endeley's and Foncha's political fortunes were hitched to these options. One of the weaknesses of democracy is that everything becomes simplified into a hammer with which to hit the other party. Negative campaigning begins to take place. Such an important issue ought to have been separated from political fortunes and a real societal debate would have taken place outside of the context of who would become government in power. There was an actual booklet entitled "The Two Options" that printed and distributed by the UN throughout the territory. The options were "independence by joining Cameroun or independence by joining Nigeria". There was no silly nonesense about "reunification".

Since it now boiled down to power politics, the refugees from French Cameroons living in the Southern Cameroons put their weight and considerable organising power and money behind Foncha, who was himself effectively one of their number. There is an academic paper that demonstrates with names, dates and documentation how the refugees from French Cameroons outmanoevred the native Southern Cameroonians and made their agenda predominate to the detriment of Southern Cameroonians. If you read the article here by Simonia, who is himself the child of French Cameroonian refugees in Southern Cameroons, that agenda is revealed. His parents basically manipulated the vote and the agenda and he is unrepentant. It is noteworthy that his tribesmen joined the debate on the post spewing all their old 1960s nationalist propaganda and sloganeering only after he was engaged. Southern Cameroonians should not be blind. This is no longer 1961.

Dr A A Agbormbai

Dr Mbua,

Thanks for your answers. They are very illuminating. It is clear that SC was given a raw deal.

Ma Mary

Dr Che. Go to the following website to find
-the southern cameroons constitution order in council. That was our constitution
-we had self government. Endeley was Premier from 1954 to 1961
-we did not only have a House of Chiefs, but a representative parliament called the House of Assembly.

Yes, we were still under the Union Jack and the Queen was head of state but we were an autonomous self governing region of the British Empire. Dr Che, please read the history. I cannot impugn your intelligence, but your facts are wrong. READ THE FACTS HERE. START FROM PAGE 13.

Dr A A Agbormbai

Ma Mary,

Your arguments and Dr Mulua's assertion that Foncha was a unificationist convinces me that, in spite of UN's undemocratic treatment of SC, Foncha has a lot to answer for SC's current predicament.

Ma Mary

Dr Agbormbai may want to look at the document linked above as well. I know that he does not have the time to read the entire corpus of Southen Cameroons documentation, but that document prepared for a law court has the summary of facts and their proper sequence. If you read these, you would discover the reason why all those who have called for separation and have been arrested in the past, such as Dinka right through Ebong, Ayamba, Luma, Nfor and so on have never been tried for "seccession". The reason is that there is no seccession. Seccession is a specific legal term. In the context in which it is used, it is technical jargon. The reason is that Republique du Cameroun would lose in open court.

Fear or war or violence is not a good reason to accept injustice, Dr Che.

Tekum Mbeng

Complementing Dr. Mbua’s argument, UN General Assembly (UNGA) papers on Southern Cameroons and particularly Resolution A/C.4/L685 abrogating the Trusteeship Agreement, suggest Southern Cameroons leaders had secured guarantees about the future of the territory.

President Ahidjo and Premier Foncha also released a joint communiqué to the UNGA confirming a joint attachment to a Federal and democratic union. Ahidjo is on the record stating to the UNGA that the aim of his Country was not to take over Southern Cameroons. Furthermore, the 1961 Constitution conclusively forbid the dismantling of the Federal Constitution linking Southern Cameroons and La Republique du Cameroun.

However, President Ahidjo abrogated the Federal Constitution in 1972 and President Biya nailed the coffin with Law No. 84-1 of 4 February 1984 renaming the country as Republique du Cameroon. In President Biya first Constitution, he went on to actually proposed French as the “authentic” language in Cameroun. Though the Biya 1996 Constitution edited out the excesses, the intent of the colonizer had been betrayed by ink on paper.

The Biya policy of national integration is a subterfuge for unduly francophonizing the NW and SW provinces without debate. You can see it in his administrative appointments and attempts to reform the education and legal systems.

However, the 1993 Buea Declaration of the All Anglophone Conference I held at Mount Mary, April 2-3 practically warned Yaoundé against cultural domination with some success. The communiqué was a thunderbolt.

Justice will prevail. In the words of Dr Mbua, “no people have ever accepted enslavement” or 2nd class status in the land of their own fathers. Dr Che Sundays needs to study this matter carefully.

The commitment to liberate Southern Cameroons by peaceful means from neocolonization may pass, if necessary, from generation to generation until success is achieved. Our case against an illegality goes from strength to strength.

Dr A A Agbormbai

Tekum Mbeng and Dr Mbua,

What is the process and timeline for establishing an independent SC, and what are the hiccups if any?

MC

Ladies & Gentlemen please stop wasting pecioius time on this SC affair,think of more serious issues in the country and make good contributions for the benefit of others,I'm tired of this SC matter which has no future.

Ndiks

Dr. Endely had warned that, in LRC, they settle dipute
through GUNS AND POISON while in Ambazonia,disputes are settle through debate and ballot box.Fon Achiri mbi said,joining Nigeria will be like entering a frying pan and LRC will be entering into fire. Foncha was quoted as saying come what may,we are Cameroonians.Dr.Che's comment about SC is infelicitous.I exhort you to do more and get the facts about SC.Dr.AAA,there will be no discentralization in LRC.I strongly trow what you read from a weblog is just the usual french political tango to keep people hoping.Hope until you are croaked and is inhumed.LRC is a French turf.Mr.MC,if you are tired,it is good you go put ye arse somewhere.This is just the begining.Remember that,as long as Ambazonia is under the colonial claws of LRC and the tight-knit crimal bastards in Etoudi,a SWORD OF DAMOCLES IS HANGING OVER OUR HEADS.
Dr's AAA et al click below and study.you may get something.
http://de.indymedia.org/2002/07/25853.shtml

Dr. Louis Mbua

Dr. Agbormbai,

Let me just chime in before Tekum Mbeng gives his own opinion. You asked:

"What is the process and timeline for establishing an independent SC, and what are the hiccups if any?"

Giving the fact that the Union has gone on too long and there have been movements of peoples on both sides, we have no alternative but to negotiate with La Republique Du Cameroun.

2006 AD: The Forces of LRC in Southern Cameroons have become hated peoples. The Gendarmes, Police, army have spilled too much blood and committed too much barbaric acts against Southern Cameroonians. It is not possible for the people to like them anymore. As a result, the first step would be to withdraw their illegal and barbaric forces to their own side of the Mungo to be replaced by UN forces. This should happen NOW and at most in a year's time.

2OO7 AD: Negotiations as to the movement towards independence with UN as observer should now begin in BUEA and NOT Foumban. Now there are two possible outcomes for such a negotiation:

1 A referendum in which Southern Cameroonian should decide whether to become independent or continue with the illegal Union. This time round ONLY Southern Cameroonians will vote. A repeat of the 1972 Fraud will not occur. After the vote, independence will come.

2. Negotiate a peaceful "divorce" from this "Boyfriend-Girlfriend" illegal arrangement with terms agreed. And then preparation for independence.

2008: SC Independence Year.


Now the obstacles are that LRC may want to scupper these plans by refusing to co-corporate because they will loose free resources, beautiful lands, dynamic, hardworking, supremely educated and diverse peoples from SC. If LRC behaves like this in the next three years, there will be war of independence. It is sad that it may reach to this but a country that arose from a war against its own Nationalists like Um Nyobe will always try to fight against SC Nationalists. SC, therefore will be left with no alternative but to fight back and SC will emerge victorious.

One hopes it ends peacefully. One way or the other this evil must be destroyed.

Dr A A Agbormbai

Dr Mbua,

Was this timeline issued by the UN, and has it informed LRC to move its forces to their original border?

Dr. Louis Mbua

Dr. Agbormbai,

No, they are my own suggestions/predictions; not the UN's. I believe this to be the best way to solve the crisis in Cameroon without any further blood shed. As long as those forces continue to occupy SC, there will be no peace. They have to leave on grounds of illegality and the atrocities they have committed in SC and its peoples for the last 44 years.

As to whether the UN has informed them or not, I do not know. However, it appears Cameroon is finding it difficult to "regain" Bakassi from Nigeria on grounds of illegal presence of BOTH Nigeria and LRC on SC Territory. Cameroon having failed to legalise the Union with SC while Nigeria has no business staying in another person's territory.

Even if the UN has not officially informed them, it is our duty to inform them so as to avert an impending confrontation.

Dr A A Agbormbai

Dr Mbua,

In terms of official decisions by the UN how far has this struggle really gone? I know that SC has been admitted into UNPO, but what official UN procedures remain to be completed in order to achieve the aim of independence?

I believe that asking LRC to leave without the UN's backing is unofficial and therefore is asking too much of them.

wiba ture

Amongst numerous things we should be concerned now is educating the present generation.when i used the words we,you know i refered to the forlon children of the southern territory of the kamerons.The sound minded should understand the present diabolic plan pushed by many and expecially from the blood sucking junta of younde to distort History from the suffering generation of anglophones.we have suffered alot and we do not need "big book empty headed doctors" to dig in more flesh to our skeletons.Instead of spending time to correct these bulfrocks,we shold have space to educate most of the young generations telling them how 419 was/is used on us and our land,our resources,and some of our people taken from us.we should be able to tell our people that with one love we will win the fight for the vampires of the yaounde won the batlle and not the war.let us not give ears to distorters who memorised all sequential events and and activites of other countries less their own events.

felix

Welther we like it or not, the driving force behind Cameroon Unity is the UN politics and the plebiscit that ensured.As much as they want it that way so be it.
The SCNC can move longer and further with a civil war to split themselves from the Unity.What then will be the outcome???
General Yakubu (Jack) Gowon was involved in directly(by not ensuring the safty of GenralIronsi) or indirectly (by taking power) in the spliting of Nigeria at that moment as pointed out by Major Gerneral Alexander A. Madieboin his The book Nigerian Revolution and the Biafran war.But then when he got into power he made a turn around to defend Nigeria Unity.The blood bath that follows was unfortunate and didn't gave the Ibos the share of their wishes, thats why there is still a small pocket of Biafra resistance today in Nigeria which of course is no treat to the Nigerian Government.
"Read My Lips and learn form Nigerian History". to check the possible outcome.
The Ibos will never want any more to venture into such an adventure.

felix

Nigerian Revolution and the Biafran War, The

Alexander A. Madiebo

A retired general of the Biafran Army presents a post-mortem account of the events of the Nigerian civil war, 1966-70. He attempts to explain dispassionately why army officers toppled the civil government in the cause of stability, and the considerable civilian support they received; and the ensuing riots and counter-coup, in the name of reunification, which led to a civil war claiming some three million lives. He presents eye-witness accounts, and from an insider-perspective tells the story of how and why the Biafrans fought the war for almost three years under blockade and in isolation from the outside world, aiming to rectify much perceived misinformation about the war published outside Africa.

African Books Collective, Oxford .
http://msupress.msu.edu/bookTemplate.php?bookID=2502

andre fokam

to SCNC fanatics
were will this rambling of fustrated and angry people lead. no were. this is almost 10 millions person hours lost blufing on this forum and that will not change an iota on the ground.
cameroon is united and all cameroonians and the whole world want it that way. it might hurt you selfish, self ambitious SCNC followers. so wake up to the trith and move on. you are at risk of living your entire life in anger and mysery. you are cameroonian. if your children are born in camerron, they will also be. same for your grand children.

EMBRACE THE FUTURE

Andre Fokam

riccardo


Dear Andre,

Dear Southern Cameroonian brothers and sisters,

So, do you understand that these Nigerians are leaving Cameroon at their own will ?
What next now ?
I know it may not play well for your cause to join Nigeria in fighting Cameroon. But these are facts. Every Country of the world has its own immigration policy. So does Cameroon. If you presently live in Nigeria or elsewhere, I urge you to please live there legally. You must abide by the Laws of that Country.
We love our brothers and sisters from Nigeria. There has never been a time where Cameroon has expelled African Immigrants and I am very proud of it.
We do have a corrupt government in Cameroon no question about it. The fact is Cameroon is still a peace loving Country. Peace loving and hard working Cameroonians are been poorly managed by the Biya's incompetent Government.
You Fanatic Southern Cameroonians should not be so ignorant to think that Biya's Government is for the Francophones.
As I said before, there are many members of his Government who are True Patriots (Anglophones and Francophones) really working very hard to get things change. Time will come that they will succeed.
When you Fanatics want to divide that Country, you play in the hands of all those corrupt members of the Government to justify their mismanagement policy.
So please for God sake, stop that nonsense of Southern Cameroon.
I urge you to join the democratic forces in Cameroon. Have your Party legalized and act patriotically to help Cameroon on the road of democracy and progress.
If Nigerians have been mistreated and beaten by outlaw Police Officers, they should be brought to Justice. No Criminal should be part of Police force of a Government. But due to corruption, Francophones, Anglophones have also been abused by these Criminal Gangs within the Police force of Cameroon.
This is one the reason why you Southern Cameroonians have to join all the Progressive Cameroonians to protest these brutal acts.
Let's all join forces to fight Lawlessness and corruption in Cameroon.
By doing so, we all guarantee a Peaceful, Democratic and Modern Cameroon for our children.
God Bless a United, Indivisible and Democratic Cameroon!
God Bless a United Africa!

Riccardo, Houston Texas.


Che Sunday (Dr.)

Ladies, Gentlemen,
Before I say anything, I must thank Ma Mary for some very insightful reasoning. Its very pleasurable and encouraging to have such company on this forum. Secondly, thanks to Dr Aghormbai for bringing sanity to the forum. We have legitimate rights to disagree, and when we do, its not out of stupidity nor malice, its simply a matter of conviction.
For starters, I never said Ironsi started the civil war in Nigeria. I said he overthrew the first elected government in that country. There has been an attempt to convice me that he had nothing to do with the actual military take over, but was compelled to do so by juniour army officers.This is the lamest of excuses on the books. Why? Proper protocol demands of him, as the highest ranking army officer, and the most experienced in warfare, after leading U.N forces in Congo, to have:-
a) accept the leadership as offered,
b) identify those coup planners and have them court-marshalled,
c) Set up a timetable for a return to an elected democracy. He could have done that and retired to run for president. He did non of the above. Oliver Crumwell did put Britain back on the right track of good governance when things were falling apart in Britain. Why not in Nigeria?
2) It is one thing to be a fervent beleiver in a cause. Its another thing charting the course through which you intend to achieve your objective(s). To say that there does not exist an article of confederation is very misleading. If we are made to accept this, then we are saying the so-called Foumban accord was a gentleman's agreement in which Foncha and Ahidjo merely shook hands and our federated state system disappeared. You know, Nigeria went to the Hague with the same proposition that no such document existed when we got the Bakasi peninsula. Much to their chargrin, some of their learned scholars had written on the issue in Cameroons favour. They then turned around saying the Nigerian people did not approve of such a deal and that Gowon was not an elected leader and as such was not speaking for the Nigerian people. We have the same reasoning here that the Foumban accord was never ratified. What organizations were responsible for its ratification? The general public or parliament?
3) Whether such a document does exist, its no grounds for maltreating anybody. I have never subscribed to the doctrine of belittling anybody.
4) When the issue of Cameroons independence came up at the United Nations, the U.S voted for it. Britain, and even Isreal voted against it. Britain offered that we were economically devoid of resources to be self supporting as a nation, and as such, she did not have the resources to continue proping up a babana republic. She however supplied troops that were popularly known as "hello Jo" who protected us during that period of transition. If any of you out there had relatives who fought during world war II and were receiving pensions during the trusteeship period from Britain, you would have noticed that those payments stopped when we left Nigeria. That is how adamant Britain was about our staying with Nigeria. If our leaders were visionary enough, they would have said, "lets be the judge."
To those who say my theory of good leadership is flawed because I suggest accepting the unacceptable, I suggest that they go back and look at it again. I used the words "how differences are best managed" not how are best they are acceptable. Managing differences means how effectively we can detect short-comings and come up with plausible solutions. In our anglo-franco bad blood, we have failed to appreciate our differences.Is parting ways the most plausible solution? Look at Canada? We are the only true bilingual country on the continent. Can we work at it to become a frame of reference?
We speak of a civil war in French Cameroon with such negativity as if it were taboo. Why were they fighting? The UPC did not start out as a political party. It started out as a labor union and their collective concern was equal pay for equal work. Cameroonians were paid lower wages than their french counterpart. France sucumbed and stream-lined wages for all job catergories, arguing that a strike in Cameroon could lead to work stopages in its territories and that could cripple french companies since it was just coming out of world war II. The labor union soon became a political party and started asking for independence. France wanted nothing to do with it, so she sabotaged the elections. Killed Mounie gave us Ahidjo. Was it really a negative thing to fight to choose your own leaders? Was anglophone Cameroon not very instrumental in providing the window of escape for most of their leaders to escape Ahidjo and France's bloody murder? Was it not the same Ahidjo that Foncha took us to? How visionary was that move? Even the late Achirimbi I(Fon of Bafut) is on record as saying, " Endeley tried taking us to Nigeria and we rejected him. If Foncha tries to take us to French Cameroon, we will also reject him." Had Foncha been listening, he would have gone back to the U.N and said, the two options you gave me are unacceptable to my people. I don't think he was visionary enough nor had the guts to hold his grounds.
Finally, we argue to seek solutions. If we agree all the times, that will be frightening. Thats a recipe for failure. So lets keep talking.

Ma Mary

This is to Dr Agbormbai and Dr Che, and of course to all the wonderful people here.

Dr Louis Mbua gives a timeline for Southern Cameroons freedom. I am not sure that it is that easy. It is possible that he knows something that I do not know. Struggles like this tend to last decades, with lots of uncertainty inbetween. People who do this kind of work, do it with full conviction, and will continue doing it in spite of time and tribulations. We shall educate the young and they shall respond. I am delighted that there are so many young people with Southern Cameroonian consciousness. It means we have not spent the last decade and half in vain. We can even relax and go into advisory capacity, because the struggle shall not end as more and more young people join in. I listen to the pathetic republique people like Riccardo and Andre sounding off and saying Nothing. We really do not care what you say, because it is all cliche, shorn of all original thought. I sympathise with Janvier, but that beautiful dream of his has absolutely no appeal to Southern Cameroonians. He was born 60 years too early, because it is a 1960s vision. He should have been there to discourage Sengat Kuo, Ahidjo and others who plotted to subvert the Federation, assimilate Southern Cameroons, a vastly superior democratic country.

In my own life, I have had the opportunity to work through periods that seemed absolutely bleak, with seemingly no spark to light the pitch darkness. I soldiered on with the faith that just sticking to something is its own good. Eventually the night was driven away by the sun.

The purpose of life is not just to eat, drink, reproduce and build houses. It is also to do wonderful things for one's fellow man and for one's soul. That is my belief, but it may not be yours or yours. Doing all those other things seem to be too easy and inconsequential and scripted to be worth measuring my life. Working and achieving justice is its own good. Doing it without shedding unneccesary blood is a good thing too.

I have been following you gentlemen, and I can identify with you, because I have been were you are now in the past. I have been where Dr Che Sunday is, believing that incremental changes are possible, that it is possible to manage the situation. I came to the realization that it is not possible. I have also been like Dr Agbormbai, believing that it is possible to induce some kind of anglosaxon commonsense into france educated and indoctrinated people and systems. Upon studying both points of view I came to the conclusion that their designers made them so antagonistic as to be unreconcilable.

The French-trained mind such as Andre's and Ricardo's is completely terrified by regional identity. They fight it with slogans, fear, violence and all kinds of nationalistic irrationality. That has been my experience interacting with the french-trained mind in the last 4 decades or so. Andre and Ricardo are conscious about white racism in the french world, but that has not altered the fact that they think about state structures, organization and management like French people.

It is a deadly error for Southern Cameroons to remain in a world dominated by French thinking. It is not going to get better. It is only going to get worse because the French machine is only designed to do one thing, to assimilate. There is not going to be any progress because Southern Cameroons plays a crucial role in the group psychology of la Republique. It is the feared and despised OTHER, the scapegoat. Presence of a scape goat always creates a condition in which progress cannot be made, because all problems must be blamed on the scape goat. Relief from anxiety is found without actual work or even facing the problem squarely to understand it. It excuses la Republique from waking up from slumber to face its true nemesis, France.

In times past, the Bamileke were the scapegoat of Cameroun. Now it the Southern Cameroonian. The voices of the la Republique collective unconscious have coined terms for that scapegoat: "biafrens, enemis dans la maison etcetera." The Bamileke are terrified, that if Southern Cameroons departs from the scene, they will once again bear the full wrath of Camerounese and French hatred and repression. We can only hope that our departure from la republique will allow it to evolve to face its demons.

There is one truth about life. You grow best when you face the thing that you fear the most. In the past decade, Southern Cameroons has slowly awakened. I am proud to have been a part of that awakening, but the work is just starting.

Ma Mary

Victor

Dr Che Sunday,

From your comments, are you saying or suggesting that we should keep on begging Biya and France for our Cameroonian status? May be you like the way Southern Cameroonians are being treated. With all due respect sir, not every body reasons that way. For 44 years we have nothing to be proud of. It may not happen in our life time, but Southern cameroons will be independent. Cameroon was never meant to be a united nation. Biya knew that when he signed his decree in 1984. Some of us may not have understood the significance of the decree but Fon Dinka and the SCNC understood it very well. Let's be logical for a moment.
La Republique du cameroun had her independent in 1960 before the so-called "joining" them. She regained her name in 1984 with the Biya's decree. Where are we who joined them? We are a homeless people trying to also gain our freedom. I don't see any problem in that.

Dr A A Agbormbai

Dr Che,

So Foncha indeed was the sell out. He didn't listen to the wishes of his people and did not fight for what the people wanted. There were so many obvious warnings as to what would happen in the future, as has indeed happened!

Tekum Mbeng

Dr Che Sunday is again splitting hairs on General Ironsi and trying to blame a dead man for nothing. With such a style, who can trust his analyses?

Is Dr Che Sunday expecting the Head of the Nigerian Army to refuse to serve after younger officers had slain the Prime Minister Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, Ahmadou Bello (leader of the North), Akintola (West leader) and other military seniors? Who does Dr Che Sunday think was next on the radicals’ list?

Ironsi was in power for only 6 months and was himself killed in a counter coup. We don't know what timetable he had for handing over but it is recorded that he did promise to lead Nigeria back to civilian rule. In Shagari's book, there is an account of tears when Ironsi learnt that the Prime Minister had been killed. Analyst point to Ironsi's decree #34 which was misinterpreted in the North as the cause of the counter coup.

This counter coup was masterminded by Murtalla Ramat Mohammed who overthrew Gowon in a bloodless coup in 1975 but ended up in the cross wires of Buka Dimka's gun in 1976. Dimka’s failed coup brought in Brigadier Olusugun Obasanjo in 1976.

General Ironsi did not start the first coup ! History is about facts.

Tekumbeng

Ndiks

Yes Foncha was the achitect of it all.Foncha was given a copy of cameroun constitution, passing it as confederal constitution ,and he was hiding it from Endeley,Bernard Fonlon etc,etc.....He was also quoted as saying "being small should not be seen as handicap,come what may,cameroun is our country".Why was he saying this?The answer is blowing in the wind.
The so call re-unification was in violation of UN resolution 1514 (xv)of 14 December 1960.UN carries the blame for not upholding it's own laws.Anything that happen in Foumban was Illegal,null and void ab ovo.Justice must take its course,nolens volens.
http://www.postwatchmagazine.com/2005/11/celebrating_44_.html

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